Research Papers

Amref Health Africa`s Strategic Direction Six is Developing a Strong Research and Innovation Base to Contribute to Health Improvement in Africa

A strong research and innovation base is key to identifying new and effective means of improving health across Africa. Between the years 2011 - 2014, Amref Health Africa'’s research will focus on influencing positive behavioural change to obtain better health outcomes, understanding health inequalities, addressing issues around disease prevention and uncovering strategies to build capacity in all areas of health service delivery.

To consolidate its position as a leader in African health development, Amref Health Africa researches and develops position papers on key health issues affecting communities in Africa as well as disseminates information through publication in peer reviewed journals and technical briefing papers.

Title: Factors influencing place of delivery for pastoralist women in Kenya: a qualitative study BMC Women's Health 2016, 16:52  doi:10.1186/s12905-016-0333-3 
Authors: Tanya Caulfield, Pamela Onyo, Abbey Byrne, John Nduba, Josephat Nyagero, Alison Morgan and Michelle Kermode
Date: September 02, 2016 


Title: Improving the Standards-Based Management-Recognition initiative to provide high-quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi: an implementation research protocol. BMJ Global Health 
Authors: Zubia Mumtaz, Sarah Salway, Josephat Nyagero, Joachim Osur, Ellen Chirwa, Fannie Kachale, Duncan Saunders 
Date published: July 7, 2016
Title: Enhancing the Supervision of Community Health Workers With WhatsApp Mobile Messaging: Qualitative Findings from 2 Low-Resource Settings in Kenya Health Science and Practice,  doi: 10.9745/GHSP-D-15-00386
Authors: Jade Vu Henry, Niall Winters, Alice Lakati, Martin Oliver, Anne Geniets, Simon M Mbae, Hannah Wanjiru
Date published: May 26, 2016 
Title: Acceptability, Usability, and Views on Deployment of Peek, a Mobile Phone mHealth Intervention for Eye Care in Kenya: Qualitative Study JMIR mHealth uHealth 2016; 4(2):e30. DOI: 10.2196/mhealth.4746. 
Authors: Lodhia Vaishali, Karanja Sarah, Lees Shelley, Bastawrous Andrew. 
Date published: 9 May  2016 
Title: Uptake and linkage into care over one year of providing HIV testing and counselling through community and health facility testing modalities in urban informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi Kenya BMC Public Health (2016) 16:373 DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3033-x 
Authors: Samuel Muhula, Peter Memiah, Lilian Mbau, Happiness Oruko, Bebora Baker, Geoffrey Ikiara, Margaret Mungai, Meshack Ndirangu, Dunstan Achwoka, Festus Ilako
Date Published: 4 May 2016
Title: Advanced HIV disease at presentation to care in Nairobi, Kenya: late diagnosis or delayed linkage to care? - a cross -sectional study BMC Infectious Diseases 
Authors: Mia Liisa van der Kop, Lehana Thabane, Patricia Opondo Awiti, Samuel Muhula, Lennie Bazira Kyomuhangi, Richard Todd Lester, and Anna Mia Ekström, 16:169
Date published: April 2016 
Title: Barriers to accessibility and utilization of HIV testing and counseling services in Tanzania: experience from Angaza Zaidi programme Pan African Medical Journal 23, 189
Authors: Alfred Meremo, Beati Mboya, David Ngilangwa, Robert Dulle, Edith Tarimo, David Urassa, Emillian Michael, Nyasiro Gibore, Bonaventura Mpondo, Gabriel Mchonde, Alex Ernest, Rita Noronha, Festus Ilako.
Date published: 14 April 2016  
Title: Post Millennium Development Goals and Population Growth: Universal Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Innovation Can be the Real a accelerators for Health Gains in Africa Health Systems and Policy Research Vol. 3 No. 1: 27 
Authors: Githinji Gitahi, Jarim Oduor Omogi and Sylla Thiam
Date published: March 15 2016 
Title: Community and provider perceptions of traditional and skilled birth attendants providing maternal health care for pastoralist communities in Kenya: a qualitative study BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 16:43 DOI 10.1186/s12884-016-0828-9 
Authors: Abbey Byrne, Tanya Caulfield, Pamela Onyo, Josephat Nyagero, Alison Morgan, John Nduba and Michelle Kermode.
Date published: March 1, 2016 
Title: Adaptive Scenarios in Quality Improvement (QI): a Case Study of an International Health Development and Research Organization Embracing Change. IJHSR. 2015; 5(11): 285-291, 
Authors: Peter M, Samuel M, Happiness O, Gabriel M, Majigo M, Patience K , Fransesca O, Kinagwi K, Margaret M, Peter O, George K, Janepher R, Catherine W, Mwita N, Meshack N, Lennie K.
Date published: October 08, 2015 
Title: Socio-economic determinants of disease progression among HIV infected adults in Kenya BMC Public Health 15:733 doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2084-8
Authors: Nyawira T. Gitahi–Kamau1, James N. Kiarie, Kenneth K. Mutai, Beatrice W. Gatumia, P. M. Gatongi and A. Lakati
Date published: July 31 2015 
Title: What do community health workers have to say about their work, and how can this inform improved programme design? A case study with CHWs within Kenya Glob Health Action 8: 27168  
Authors: Martin Oliver, Anne Geniets, Niall Winters, Isabella Rega and Simon M. Mbae
Date published: May 22, 2015
Title: Effectiveness of Ng’adakarin Bamocha model in improving access to ante-natal and delivery services among nomadic pastoralist communities of Turkana West and Turkana North Sub-Counties of Kenya. Pan African Medical Journal, 
Authors: Jillo Ali Jillo, Peter Ofware, Susan Njuguna, and Wanja Mwaura-Tenamberge 
Date published: April 23, 2015 
Title: Epidemiology of Cervical Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in HIV Infected Women in Kenya: a cross-Sectional Study, African Journal of Reproductive Health March 2015; 19 (1): 135
Authors: Peter Memiah, Violet Makokha, Wangeci Mbuthia, Grace Wanjiku Kiiru, Solomon Agbor Francesca Odhiambo, Sylvia Ojoo, Justice Mbizo, Samuel Muhula, Gabriel Mahasi and Sibhatu Biadgilign  
Title: Adolescents’ Communication with Parents, Other Adult Family Members and Teachers on Sexuality: Effects of School-Based Interventions in South Africa and Tanzania AIDS and Behavior Journal 
Authors: Francis Namisi, Leif Edvard Aarø, Sylvia Kaaya, Lusajo J. Kajula, Gad. P. Kilonzo, Hans Onya, Annegreet Wubs & Catherine Mathews
Date published: February 28, 2015, 3:37
Title: Determinants of use of skilled birth attendant at delivery in Makueni, Kenya: a cross sectional study BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 
Authors: Anne Gitimu, Christine Herr, Happiness Oruko, Evalin Karijo, Richard Gichuki, Peter Ofware, Alice Lakati, Josephat Nyagero
Date published: February 3, 2015
Title: Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the survival of HIV-infected adult patients in urban slums of Kenya Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) 
Authors: Samuel Opondo Muhula, Peter Memiah, Biadgilign Sibhatu, Meshack Ndirangu, Lennie Kyomuhangi
Date published: January 22, 2015
Title: Factors affecting motivation and retention of primary healthcare workers in three disparate regions in Kenya Human Resources for Health 2014, 12:33 doi: 101186/1478-4491-12-33 
Authors: David Ojakaa, Susan Olang, Jordan Jarvis. 
Date published: 6 June 2014
Title: Interaction between climatic, environmental, and demographic factors on cholera outbreaks in Kenya
Authors: James D Stoltzus, Jane Carter, Muge Akpinar-Elci, Martin Matu, Victoria Kimotho, Mark J Giganti, Daniel Langat and Omur Cinar. International Journal of professional practice, Vol 5, Issues 1 & 2 
Date published: January – June 2014 pp89-99
Title: Commentary on Integration of non-communicable diseases in health care: tackling the double burden of disease in African setting Pan African Medical Journal 18, 202, 
Authors: Florence Temu, Marcus Leonhardt, Jane Carter, Sylla Thiam.
Date published: 5 July 2014
Title: Acceptance of a malaria vaccine by caregivers of sick children in Kenya Malaria Journal, 13:172 doi:10.1186/1475-2875-13-172
Authors: David I Ojakaa; Jordan D Jarvis; Mary I Matilu; Sylla Thiam
Date published: May 2014
Title: Leveraging information technology to bridge the health workforce gap.
Authors: Robert Bolliner, Larry Chang, Reza Jafari, Thomas O’Callaghan, Peter Ngatia, Settle D, Jane McKenzie-White, Kunal Patel, Amir Dossal, and Najeeb Al Shorbaji. Bulletin of the World Health Organization; 91:890-891
Date published: November 2013
Title: Growth and Nutritional Status in the first six months of life in selected hospitals - Nairobi Province. The East African Medical Journal Vol 90 No 11 pp 350-357
Authors: Alice Sipiyan Lakati, O. A. Makokha, C. W. Binns And Y. Kombe.
Date published: Nov 2013
Title: Why coverage targets of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy are so elusive in Sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic review of health system barriers  Malaria
Authors: Sylla Thiam, Victoria Kimotho, Patrick Gatonga Journal, 12:353 
Date published: October 2013
Title: Mauras Situational analysis and expert evaluation of the nutrition and health status of infants and young children in five countries in sub-Saharan Africa Food & Nutrition Bulletin, Volume 34, Number 3,
Authors: Martine Alles; Simone Eussen; Odile Ake-Tano; Saliou Diouf; Agatha Tanya; Alice Lakati; Abiola Oduwole; Celine, pp. 287-298(12) 
Date published: September 2013
Title: Condom use and sexuality communication with adults: a study among high school students in South Africa and Tanzania BMC Public Health
Authors: Francis S Namisi, Leif E Aarø, Sylvia Kaaya, Hans E Onya, Annegreet Wubs and Catherine Mathews,  
Date published: September 23, 2013 13:874 
Title: Psychometric Evaluation of a Cross-Culturally Adapted Felt Stigma Questionnaire Among People Living with HIV in Kenya
Authors: Caroline Kingori, Michael Reece, Samuel Obeng, Maresa Murray, Enbal Shacham, Brian Dodge, Emmanuel Akach, Peter Ngatia, David Ojakaa.  AIDS patient care and STDs (impact factor: 2.68). 27(8):481-8.
Date published: August 2013  
Title: Male involvement in antenatal care redefined: A cross-sectional survey of married men in Lang’ata district, Kenya. African Journal of Midwifery and Women’s Health;
Authors: Matiang’i Micah, Mojola Alfred, and Githae Margaret.
Date published: July 2013 7(3):117-122 
Title: Ball back in Africa’s court: funding malaria control and elimination Letter to the editors Pan African Medical Journal
Authors: Sylla Thiam, Victoria Kimotho, Teguest Guerma, Jane Carter 14, 78. 
Date published: February 26, 2013
Title: Incidence of cleft deformities among neonates in Mulago national referral hospital, Uganda. East and Central African Journal of Surgery
Authors: Kalanzi E, Mengiste Asrat, and Katamba Achilles.
Date published: 2013; 18(1):78-83
Title: Breastfeeding and Employment in Kenya Articles from the 13th World Congress on Public Health
Author: Alice S Lakati, Collins W Binns, Aselimo O Makokha, Yeri Kombe 
Date published: April 23-27, 2012, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia) Medimond April 2013, pg 265-270
Title: Safety monitoring of artemisinin combination therapy through a national pharmacovigilance system in an endemic malaria setting. Malaria Journal,
Authors: Sylla Thiam, Jean-Louis Ndiaye, Ibrahima Diallo, Patrick Gatonga, Fatou Ba Fall, Ndella E Diallo, Babacar Faye, Mamadou L Diouf, Medoune Ndiop, Mame B Diouf, Oumar Gaye, Moussa Thior12:54
Date Published: February 2013  
Title: Ndiva Utilization Rates and Perceptions of (VCT) Services in Kisii Central District, Kenya.  Global Journal of Health Science
Authors: Torence Epule, Mirielle Moto, Peng Changhui, Nguh Balgah, Josephat Nyagero, Alice Lakati, Mafany Ndiva
Date published: January 2013; 5(1):35-43
Title: Grobusch Cystic echinococcosis in sub-Saharan Africa. The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Authors: Kerstin Wahlers; Colin N. Menezes; Michelle Wong, Eberhard Zeyhle; Mohammed E. Ahmed; Michael Ocaido, Cornelis Stijnis; Thomas Romig; Peter Kernr; Martin P. vol. 12 issue 11 
Date published: November, 2012 p. 871-880.
Title: Prevalence and diversity of cystic echinococcosis in livestock in Maasailand, Kenya
Authors: Francis Addy; Amos Alakonya; Njeri Wamae; Japhet Magambo; Cecilia Mbae; Erastus Mulinge; Eberhard Zeyhle; Wassermann, Marion; Kern, Peter; Romig, Thomas. . Parasitology Research vol. 111 issue 6. p. 2289 – 2294 
Date published: December 2012 
Title: Impact of Internalized Stigma on HIV Prevention Behaviors Among HIV-Infected Individuals Seeking HIV Care in Kenya AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Authors: Caroline Kingori, Michael Reece, Samuel Obeng, Maresa Murray, Enbal Shacham, Brian Dodge, Emannuel Akach, Peter Ngatia, and David Ojakaa. 26(12): 761-768. 
Date published: December 2012
Title: Quality of life in pre- and post treatment among obstetric fistula patients at Kisii Hospital, Kenya Clinical and Health Promotion Journal 
Authors: Judy Mwangi, Stephen Mutiso and Ruchi Puri, Jennifer Gatebi.
Date published: October 2012 2:59-63
Tilte: AMREF´s evidence in advancing the health of women and children Pan African Medical Journal. 25 
Author: Teguest Guerma
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 1 
Title: Behavioral change communication strategy vital in malaria prevention interventions in rural communities: Nakasongola district, Uganda Pan African Medical Journal.2012; 25
Authors: Margaret Mugisa, Abel Muzoora 
Date published: December 2012 13 (Suppl 1): 2 
Title: The place of knowledge management in influencing lasting health change in Africa: an analysis of AMREF’s progress Pan African Medical Journal.
Author: Rumishael Shoo, Willy Matuku, Jane Ireri, Josephat Nyagero, Patrick Gatonga
Date published: 25 December 2012; 13 (Supp 1): 3
Title: Factors affecting the utilisation of improved ventilated latrines among communities in Mtwara Rural District, Tanzania Pan African Medical Journal.
Authors: Koronel Kema, Innocent Semali, Serafina Mkuwa, Ignatio Kagonji, Florence Temu, Festus Ilako, Martin Mkuye
Date published:  25 December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 4 
Title: Access to HIV prevention services among gender based violence survivors in Tanzania Pan African Medical Journal
Authors: Beati Mboya, Florence Temu, Bayoum Awadhi, Zubeda Ngware, Elly Ndyetabura, Gloria Kiondo, Janneth Maridadi.
Date published: 25 December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 5 
Title: Assessing the need and capacity for integration of Family Planning and HIV counseling and testing in Tanzania Pan African Medical Journal.
Authors: Bayoum Awadhi, Beati Mboya, Florence Temu, Zubeda Ngware
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 6
Title: Knowledge, attitude and practices on jigger infestation among household members aged 18 to 60 years: case study of a rural location in Kenya Pan African Medical Journal.
Authors: Bernard Kimani, Josephat Nyagero, Lawrence Ikamari 
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 7
Title: Trachoma and its determinants in Mojo and Lume districts of Ethiopia Pan African Medical Journal.
Authors: Kassahun Negash Yalew, Medhanit Getachew Mekonnen, Atsbha A Jemaneh
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 8
Title: Ownership and utilization of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets in Afar, northeast Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study Pan African Medical Journal.
Authors: Kassahun Negash, Berhane Haileselassie, Awoke Tasew, Yesuf Ahmed, Medhanit Getachew
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl1:9)
Title: Elizabeth Oywer Barriers to enrolment into a professional upgrading programme for enrolled nurses in Kenya Pan Afr Med J
Authors: Alice Lakati, Peter Ngatia, Caroline Mbindyo, Diana Mukami. 
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 10
Title: Integrated community based child survival, reproductive health and water and sanitation program in Mkuranga district, Tanzania: a replicable model of good practices in community based health care Pan African Medical Journal
Authors: Koronel Mashalla Kema, Joseph Komwihangiro, Saltiel Kimaro.
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 11
Title: Effectiveness of Kenya’s Community Health Strategy in delivering community-based maternal and newborn health care in Busia County, Kenya: non-randomized pre-test post test study Pan African Medical Journal.
Authors: Gilbert Wangalwa, Bennett Cudjoe, David Wamalwa, Yvonne Machira, Peter Ofware, Meshack Ndirangu, Festus Ilako
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 12
Title: Barriers to sexual reproductive health services and rights among young people in Mtwara district, Tanzania: a qualitative study Pan African Medical Journal. 
Authors: Rita M Mbeba, Martin S Mkuye, Grace E Magembe, William L Yotham, Alfred O Mellah, Serafina B Mkuwa 
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 13
Title: Using partnership approach to reduce mortality and morbidity among children under five in Limpopo province, South Africa Pan African Medical Journal.
Authors: Kennedy Sivhaga, Boniface Hlabano, Penina Ochola
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 14
Title: Contribution of traditional birth attendants to the formal health system in Ethiopia: the case of Afar region Pan African Medical Journal.
Authors: Tedla Mulatu, Jemal Y Umer, Dawit Seyoum, Tilahun Nigatuu
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 15
Title: Behaviour change and associated factors among Female Sex Workers in Kenya Pan African Medical Journal.
Authors: Josephat Nyagero, Samuel Wangila, Vincent Kutai, Susan Olang'o  
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1) 16
Title: Determinants of delivery practices among Afar pastoralists of Ethiopia Pan African Medical Journal.
Authors: Medhanit Getachew Mekonnen, Kassahun Negash Yalew, Jemal Yesouf Umer, Muluken Melese
Date published: December 2012; 13 (Suppl 1): 17
Title: Are insecticide treated bed nets failing. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol 12, 2012: 512-513- A correspondence letter
Authors: Thiam, S., Shoo, R., Carter, J. 
Title: Contraception knowledge and practice among fistula patients at referral centres in Kenya.
Authors: Khisa W., Wakasiaka S., Kagema F., Omoni G. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 112 (2012), 220 – 222.
Title: A Qualitative Evaluation of the Choice of Traditional Birth Attendants for Maternity Care in 2008 Sierra Leone: Implications for Universal Skilled Attendance at Delivery.   Maternal Child Health J.  DOI 10.1007/s10995-012-1061-4 _ Springer
Authors: Oyerinde  K, Harding Y, Amara P,  Garbrah-Aidoo N, Kanu R,  Oulare M,  Shoo R,  K Daoh K 
Title: Under nutrition of orphans and vulnerable children:  A comparison of cash transfer beneficiaries and non beneficiaries in Korogocho Slums, Nairobi, East African Journal of Public Health.
Authors: Wakoli, A.B., Ettyang, G.A., Lakati, A.S.
Date published: September 2012 Vol 9, No. 3
Title: Effects of Selected Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Community Health Workers on Performance of Home Visits during Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study in Busia District, Kenya, Global Journal of Health Science
Authors: Ndedda C., Wamae, A., Ndirangu, M., Wamalwa, W., Wangalwa, G., Watako, P., Mbiti, E. ,
Date published: August 2012
Title: The background, social support and behavioural characteristics associated with health insurance coverage among the older population in Kisii County, Kenya
Authors: Nyagero, J. M.; Gakure, R.; Keraka, M.; Mwangi, M., Wanzala, P., Afr J Health Sci. 2012; 22:201-213,
Date published: July 2012.
Title: Health insurance education strategies for increasing the health insurance coverage among older population – a quasi experimental study in rural Kenya, The Pan African Medical Journal.
Nyagero, J. M., Gakuru, R., Keraka, K., Wanzala, P.   
Date published: May 2012;12:9 
Title: Determinants of Male Partner Involvement in Promoting Deliveries by Skilled Attendants in Busia, Kenya, Global Journal of Health Science.
Authors: Nanjala, M; Wamalwa, D.
Date published: March, 2012
Title: Determinants of community based maternal health care service utilization in South Omo pastoral areas of Ethiopia, Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences.
Authors: Ergano, K, Getachew, M, Seyum, D, Negash, K.
Date published: February 2012
Title: Depression among women with obstetrics fistula in Kenya. International Journal of Gynaecology Obstetrics.
Authors: Khisa W., Mutiso, S., Mwangi J.W., Quresh, Z., Beard J., Venkat P. 
Date published: October 2011 Vol. 115 Pg 31-33
Title: Demographic and medical profiles of patients with obstetric fistula in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. International Journal of Obstetric Trauma.
Authors: Khisa W., Mutiso, S., Mwangi J.W.  
Date published: Oct. 2011 Vol. 1 No. 1
Title: Making aid effective at the community level: the AMREF experience Development in Practice
Authors: Ojakaa, D., Okoth, E., Wangila, S., Ndirangu, M., Mwangi, N., Ilako, F.  Vol 21 pg 1-7
Title:  Human Perceptions of malaria and vaccines in Kenya Vaccines Landes Bioscience 7:10, 1-4;
Authors: Ojakaa, D., Yamo, E., Collymore, Y., Ba-Nguz, A., Bingham, A.
Date published: October 2011
Title: Keeping Health In The Backseat.’ How Motherhood Interrupts HIV Treatment Among Recently Delivered Women. African Journal of AIDS Research 
Authors: Awiti Ujiji O, Ekström AM, Ilako F, Indalo D, Lukhwaro A, Wamalwa D, Rubenson B 
Date published: 2011
Title: Community perceptions of malaria and vaccines in the South Coast and Busia regions of Kenya Malaria Journal 2011
Authors: Ojakaa DI, Ofware P, Machira YW, Yamo E, Collymore Y, Ba-Nguz A, Vansadia P, Bingham A. 
Title: Is 'Opt-Out HIV Testing' a real option among pregnant women in rural districts in Kenya? BMC Public Health 2011
Authors: Ujiji O.A, Rubenson B, Ilako F, Marrone G, Wamalwa D, Wangalwa, G. Ekström, A.M
Title: Major Reduction in Anti-Malarial Drug Consumption in Senegal after Nation-Wide Introduction of Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests PLoS ONE 2011
Authors: Thiam S, Thior M, Faye B. 
Title: Reasoning and deciding PMTCT-adherence during pregnancy among women living with HIV in Kenya Cult Health Sex 2011
Authors: Awiti Ujiji O, Ekström AM, Ilako F, Indalo D, Wamalwa D, Rubenson B. 
Title: Sexual risk reduction strategies among HIV infected men receiving ART in Kibera, Nairobi AIDS Care 2011
Authors: Ragnarsson A, Thorson A, Dover P, Carter J, Ilako F, Indalo D, Ekstrom AM. 
Title: A Sexual risk taking among patients on antiretroviral therapy in an urban informal settlement in Kenya: a cross-sectional survey J Int AIDS Soc. 2011
Authors: Ragnarsson A, Mia E. A, Carter J, Ilako F, Lukhwaro A, Marrone G and Thorson 
Title: The influence of traditional medicine and religion on discontinuation of ART in an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya AIDS Care 2011
Authors: Ilako F, Carter J, Unge C, Ragnarsson A, Ekstrom AM, Belita A, Sodergård B, Indalo D 
Title: Sexual risk-reduction strategies among HIV-infected men receiving ART in Kibera, Nairobi AIDS Care 2011
Authors: Ilako F, Carter J, Ragnarsson A, Thorson A, Dover P, Indalo D, Ekstrom AM. 
Title: A Community perceptions of malaria and vaccines in the South Coast and Busia regions of Kenya 2011
Authors: Ojakaa DI, Ofware P, Machira YW, Yamo E, Collymore Y, Ba-Nguz  
Title: “I will not let my HIV status stand in the way." Decisions on motherhood among women on ART in a slum in Kenya a qualitative study BMC Women's Health 2010
Authors: Ujiji O. A  Ekström A.M, Ilako F, Indalo D, Rubenson B  
Title: Comparing Clinic Retention Between Residents and Nonresidents of Kibera, Kenya Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2010.
Authors: Unge C, Södergård B, Ekström A, Carter J, Waweru M, Ilako F, Ragnarsson A, Marrone G,Thorson A.M.
Title: Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs up to three years on treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, 2007-2009: systematic review: Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs Tropical Medicine & International Health 2010.
Authors: Fox M.P, Rosen S 
Title: Retention of clinical officers in Southern Sudan: a tracer study of Maridi national health training institute (NHTI) graduates Medicine & Health 2010.
Authors: Ngatia, P. M; Kimotho, V 
Title: Long-Term Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment and Program Drop-out in a High-Risk Urban Setting in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Prospective Cohort Study PLoS ONE 2010
Authors: Unge C., Södergård B., Marrone G, Thorson A, Lukhwaro A, Carter J, Ilako F., Ekström, A. M.  
Title: Laboratory malaria diagnostic capacity in health facilities in five administrative zones of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Dec;15(12):1449-57
Authors: Carter J, Hailegiorgis B, Girma S, Melaku Z, Teshi T, Demeke L, Gebresellasie S, Yadeta D, Tibesso G, Whitehurst N, Yamo E, Reithinger R. 
Title: Challenges for scaling up ART in a resource-limited setting: a retrospective study in Kibera, Kenya Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 2009